- Apr 19, 2018 -
Cephalosporins are currently divided into four generations based on their antibacterial spectrum, antibacterial activity, stability against beta-lactamase, and nephrotoxicity.
What are the differences between the fourth generation cephalosporins?
First generation cephalosporins
Commonly used drugs such as cephalexin, cephradine, cefadroxil, cefazolin and so on.
The effect of gram-positive bacterial infections, including resistant Staphylococcus aureus (abbreviated as S. aureus) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin, has an antibacterial effect. Oral cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cephradine are used primarily for mild to moderate respiratory infections (such as acute inflammation of the trachea and bronchi), urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint, and obstetric and gynecological infections. Cefazolin for injection is widely used for severe infections of moderate infections and susceptible bacteria.
Second generation cephalosporins
Commonly used drugs cephalosporins Meng Duo, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefaclor and so on.
The role of gram-negative bacteria, positive cocci and influenza bacilli have a strong antibacterial effect (because the second generation cephalosporins have antibacterial effects on Gram-negative bacteria, positive bacteria and other bacteria, it is called broad-spectrum antibiotics). Commonly used in the treatment of respiratory tract, biliary tract, intestinal tract caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Meningococcus, Salmonella, Shigella Urinary tract and soft tissue, bone joints, obstetrics and gynecology infections. Cefuroxime is more commonly used, and cefaclor is more commonly taken orally.
Third generation cephalosporins
Commonly used drugs cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone and so on.
Gram-negative bacilli, anaerobic bacteria, and gram-positive bacteria that have a strong resistance to life-threatening and even life-threatening drugs have a strong antibacterial effect. For sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and other serious infections and urinary tract infections; E. coli, Kleber's preferred drug for pneumonia.
Fourth generation cephalosporins
Commonly used drugs cefepime, cefpirome.
The antibacterial spectrum and antibacterial activity are similar to those of the third generation cephalosporins, but the antibacterial spectrum has been further expanded. Gram-positive and negative bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus (except Enterococcus) have strong antibacterial activity. For the stability of β-lactamases, clinically it is mainly used for various serious infections such as respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, biliary tract infections, sepsis, etc.
In general, cephalosporins have been stable for generations of β-lactamases; their toxicity to kidneys has been lower than for generations; and the first three generations of cephalosporins have produced less than one generation of antibacterial agents against gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial ability of Gram-negative bacteria is stronger than that of one generation; the fourth-generation cephalosporins have strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The third and fourth generations can penetrate into cerebrospinal fluid.
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