- Jun 26, 2018 -
Cytokinins are plant hormones that promote cell division, induce the formation of shoots, and promote their growth. The word cytokinin is derived from cytokinesis (cell division). It is mainly distributed in the sites where cell division occurs, such as the tips of the shoots, root tips, immature seeds, germinating seeds, and the growing fruits.
It was also known as "cytokinin" when it was first discovered. It Is a class of plant hormones. In 1955, when Skoog and his colleagues studied plant tissue culture, they discovered a substance that promoted cell division and was named kinetin. Its chemical name is 6-Furfuryladenin(KT), pure white solid, soluble in strong acids and alkalis. Kinetin does not exist in plants. After that, dozens of substances with physiological activity of kinetin were isolated from plants. Nowadays, substances that have the same physiological activity as kinetin, whether natural or synthetic, have now been artificially synthesized plant growth regulators, collectively referred to as cytokinins.
Their basic structure is a 6-aminopurine ring. Natural cytokinins in plants include zeatin (ZT), dihydrozeatin, isopentenyl adenine, zeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenosine and so on. The site where they are synthesized in the body is mainly apical. Synthetic cytokinins include 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in addition to kinetin.
The most obvious physiological effects of cytokinins are two: First, to promote cell division and regulate its differentiation. In tissue culture, the proportions of cytokinins and auxins affect the plant organ differentiation. Usually, when the proportion is high, it is favorable for the differentiation of buds; when the ratio is low, it is favorable for root differentiation. The second is to delay the degradation of protein and chlorophyll and delay aging.
There are differences in the activity of various cytokinins. For example, in biological tests that promote growth, natural cytokinins such as zeatin and isopentenyl adenine are more effective than synthetic cytokinins such as 6-benzylaminopurine and stimulants. It is high, but in the biological tests that delay the decomposition of chlorophyll, the activity of the latter is higher than the former.
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