- Mar 09, 2018 -
Clothianidin is a neonicotinoid insecticide sold by Bayer CropScience under the brand names Poncho, Prosper, and Votivo. Clothianidin and other neonicotinoids are suspected as the cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a phenomenon in which entire colonies of bees mysteriously and rapidly die off. Clothianidin is a "systemic" pesticide that is applied as a seed treatment and subsequently spreads to all parts of the plant. It was first used in the U.S. on corn and canola in 2003. In December 2010, following a leaked EPA memo, pesticide watchdog groups and beekeepers called on the EPA to issue "an immediate stop-use order on the pesticide while the science is redone, and redesigned in partnership with practicing beekeepers." The half-life of clothianidin ranges from 148 to 1,155 days (roughly from just under 5 months to over 3 years)
Clothianidin is authorized for spray, dust, soil drench (for uptake via plant roots), injectable liquid (into tree limbs and trunks, sugar cane stalks etc.), and seed treatment uses, in which clothianidin coats seeds that take up the pesticide via the roots as the plant grows. The chemical may be used to protect plants against a wide variety of agricultural pests in many countries, of which the following are mentioned in citable English-language sources: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Lithuania, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, UK, and the United States. Seed treatment uses of clothianidin, corn in particular, have been revoked or suspended in Germany, Italy and Slovenia. The suspensions are reflective of E.U. pesticide law and are generally associated with acute poisoning of bees from pesticide dust being blown off of treated seeds, especially corn, and onto nearby farms where bees were performing pollinator services.
3,Clothianidin and Honeybees
Clothianidin is one of two neonicotinoids that is used on almost all corn planted in the United States (the other is thiamethoxam, which turns into clothianidin when honeybees metabolize it). This is significant as corn is the "single largest use of arable land in North America." It takes only 22 to 44 nanograms (billionths of a gram) to kill 50% of honeybees exposed. However, when administered to the bees orally, a mere 2.8 to 3.7 nanograms is sufficient to kill 50% of honeybees. One kernel of corn can contain enough clothianidin to kill 80,000 honeybees. While corn does not rely on honeybees for pollination (it uses wind), corn pollen is a significant food source for honeybees.
1.Clothianidin belongs to Broad-spectrum Systemic Insecticide family.
2.Clothianidin is used by foliar application against Hemiptera, Coleoptera,
Diptera and some Lepidoptera insects in paddy rice, pome fruit, stone fruit,vegetables, and other crops.
3.Neonicotinoid compounds are a class of efficient and safe, high-selectivity of new pesticides. With a tag out, stomach toxicity and activity within the suction, Clothianidin acts similar to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
4.Neonicotinoid has become the fastest-growing class of chemical pesticides, Because of the Broad-spectrum, lower dosage, absorption, well transmission with the plants and higher environmental compatibility, they get greater success.
Oral Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for male and female rats >2000 mg/kg. Slightly irritating to eyes, not a skin irritant (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for male and female rats >6.1 mg/l. NOEL (2 y) for male rats 27.4, female rats 9.7 mg/kg b.w. daily; (1 y) for male dogs 7.8, female dogs 8.5 mg/kg b.w. daily. Other Not mutagenic. Not oncogenic in rats and mice. Not teratogenic in rats and rabbits.
Aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, plant hopper and
these similar hemiptera, coleoptera, diptera pests
Rice, vegetables, fruit and other crops
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