- May 07, 2018 -
1. Breaking seed sleep
The Characteristics of Seed Dormancy
After cherry seeds are collected, they need to be kept wet to maintain their vitality, and the vitality of seeds of different species is also different. For example, the sweet seeds of European sweet cherries must not be stored more than 8 days, otherwise they will lose their vitality. However, Chinese cherry seeds can maintain high viability for 7 months in the room. Like other stonefruit fruit trees, cherry seeds can only break dormancy and germinate into normal seedlings only after a certain period of low temperature stratification. Generally Chinese cherries need low temperature lamination 100-180d, European sweet cherry 150d, mountain cherry 180-240d, sour cherry 200-300d. After the layered seeds are subjected to a certain low temperature treatment, the content of their internal inhibitory substances is reduced and the content of the substances is increased. Studies suggest that the balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3) plays a dominant role in seed dormancy and sprouting. The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds that are dormant is higher, and the content of GA3 in seeds that are in the germinating phase is higher. Cytokinin (6-BA) can promote the degradation of ABA. Therefore, in the case of missing the stratification time or insufficient number of strata days, the low temperature stratification process can be partially or completely replaced by GA3, 6-BA, or the like.
Technical measures to break the dormancy of seeds
GA3. Cherry seeds were immersed in 100mg/L GA3 for 24h immediately after harvest, which shortened the ripening period by 2-3 months. Or refrigerate seeds at 7°C for 24-34 days, then immerse them in 100 mg/L GA3 solution for 24 hours. After sowing, germination rate reaches 75%-100%. The core and shells of the cherries harvested that year were stripped and soaked in fresh water for 24 hours. The seed coats were peeled and soaked with 1000 mg/L GA3 for 5 hours and sowed. The germination rate reached 56%. The fresh cherry fruit pulp was removed and rinsed with fresh water. Then the kernels of the seeds were removed and soaked in GA3 at a concentration of 100 mg/L for 48 hours. The culture was performed in pure wet sand to promote seed germination and neat germination. Treatment with 200 mg/L and 300 mg/L GA3 was less effective than 100 mg/L.
2. Cutting propagation takes root
Cherry cutting rooting
Cherry cuttings have branches and roots inserted, branches can be used hard branches cutting and green branches to insert two methods. Green shoots and cuttings need to be equipped with misting equipment. The cost is high. Therefore, hardwood cuttings are used in production. Hardwood cuttings should be carried out in the vicinity of spring sap flow, and green branches in late June to July. Green branch cutting inserts use semi-lignified current shoots, diameter 0.3cm, too thick to root, too fine nutrients. After harvesting, cut into 15cm long branches. Only the top two or three leaves are retained, and all the lower leaves are removed. Hardwood cuttings are inserted in spring, and the ground should be covered with plastic film to promote warming and promote rooting. In order to increase the survival rate of cuttings, growth regulators can be used before cutting.
Technical Measures to Promote Cherry Cutting Rooting
Naphthylacetic acid. The semi-lignified shoots of cherry rootstock of the year were treated with naphthaleneacetic acid at a concentration of 100 mg/L, and the rooting rate reached 88.3%. green cherry cuttings treated with 150 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid for 1 h or 200 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid for 0.5 h, and used fine sand as matrix cuttings to promote rooting.
Indole Butyric Acid. The hemi-lignified shoots of cherry rootstock of the current year were treated with 100 mg/L of indole butyric acid for 2 hours or 150 mg/L of indole butyric acid for 1 hour, and the dust was used as a substrate for cuttings to promote rooting.
The cherry root segment of the prairie cut from the autumn seedlings was selected to have a diameter of more than 0.5 cm, cut into 5-7 cm, and soaked with 250 mg/L indole butyric acid for 2 h or 100 mg/L butyric acid for 4 h to germinate. Both the rate and the rooting rate are high.
ABT rooting powder. Dipping the lower end of Chinese cherry cuttings (about 5cm) in 100mg/L rooting powder solution for 4-5h, or using 1000mg/L rooting powder liquid for 2-3s, can increase the rooting rate.
3. Extended dormancy, delayed flowering
Cherry sensitivity to temperature
Cherry is a species sensitive to temperature. When the average temperature reached about 10°C on that day, flower buds began to sprout. When the average daily temperature reaches around 15°C, it begins to bloom. The flowering period is 7-14d, and the long time is 20d. The difference between varieties is 5d. The damage temperature of cherry in half a day is: bud stage -2°C, flowering period -2.2°C~-1.1°C, young fruit period -1.1°C . Therefore, in most years, cherries suffer from freezing injury from buds to young fruits, and flower organs are damaged when they are young, and flower organs or young fruits lose their physiological activity when they are heavy. Chinese cherry is more than 20 days old than the sweet cherry flowering period. The use of growth regulators for a long cherry dormancy period can delay budding and flowering of cherry trees and avoid cold periods.
The technical measures of delayed flowering
GA3. Spraying 50 mg/L of GA3 after autumn leaves can delay the sweet cherry flowering period for about 3 weeks. In the warmer winter temperatures, the budding period can be postponed.
NAA. The application of NAA in July-September delayed the flowering period of Mengerlan cherry for 14 days, and the sprouting of leaf buds was postponed for 19 days. Treatment with 100-200 mg/L NAA at the beginning of August can delay cherry flowering, without causing a significant reduction in yield and leaf area.
The related plant growth regulator as follows:
2. Promote root series: Soluble rooting powder, compound fertilizer synergist; indole butyric acid(IBA), potassium butyrate(IBA-K)
3. Cell division series: 6-Benzylamino adenine (6-BA), Clopidogrel (KT-30), Thidiazuron, Isopentenyl adenine