Amoxicillin, the most widely used antibiotic for swine, do you really understand it?

- Sep 14, 2018 -

As a penicillin antibiotic, amoxicillin is easily affected by many factors such as temperature, humidity, light, electrolytes, trace elements and vitamins, etc., and hydrolysis, cracking, oxidation and other chemical changes occur. Although we are not equipped with professional testing equipment, the inherently unstable changes in things usually manifest themselves on the outside. For example, traits change from white to white to yellow, brown, knotted lump, and a large number of shades, etc. In clinical treatment, once such amoxicillin-soluble powder is found, it should not be used, and it is not only ineffective. Moreover, there are sometimes more serious side effects.


Amoxicillin exerts a powerful broad-spectrum bactericidal action on the bacterial cell wall and is sensitive to most Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, etc. Amoxicillin has a strong effect on gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli, Haemophilus parasuis, Salmonella, Proteus and Pasteurella; Oral absorption is good, blood concentration is high, so the treatment effect on systemic infection is better; Monogastric animals (such as pigs and chickens) have an absorption rate ranging from 74% to 92% after oral administration, and the contents of the gastrointestinal tract influence the rate of absorption.


Amoxicillin is a concentration-dependent fungicide, and the food in the animal's gastrointestinal tract will affect its absorption rate. Therefore, clinical administration requires controlled feeding and concentrated administration, and the therapeutic effect will be good. Although theoretical pharmacology states that it works well for most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, there are objective drug resistance in some areas, as well as cell wall thickness of positive bacteria and thin cell walls of negative bacteria.

Therefore, in the veterinary clinical treatment, amoxicillin is mainly used for the treatment of systemic infection caused by Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis and Clostridium perfringens, and the treatment of respiratory, intestinal and urinary system infections. In poultry, amoxicillin is mainly used for the treatment of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella and some respiratory and intestinal gram-positive bacterial infections.


Finally, let's review the last theoretical pharmacology of amoxicillin: Chicken mixed drink, 60mg amoxicillin per 1L water; If the weight of kilograms is taken, the chicken takes orally 20 to 30 mg of amoxicillin per kilogram of body weight for 3 to 5 days, and the withdrawal period of the chicken is 7 days. Pigs and chickens were dosed with 60 mg amoxicillin per 1 L of water and were ineffective for 100% of systemic infections. For the treatment of systemic infections, it is necessary to calculate the dose in accordance with the upper limit of 30kg/Kg body weight of kilogram to have a certain therapeutic effect.

 

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